Considering the importance of energy conservation, the ways in which they improve their energy production and / or energy use have been taken into consideration. Here is an overview of one of the energy optimization techniques that replaces inflammatory, gas and fluorescent bulbs with a new type of bulb called LED bulbs. In order to clarify the issue while introducing LED lamps, the factors that have made these lamps superior to other older ones have been studied.
Since the beginning of continuous creation, human life has been dependent on all kinds of energy, and over the course of time, this dependence has not only not diminished but is increasing significantly, and now everyone is looking to find ways to respond to the growing demand for energy. For the same reason, discussions such as optimizing the use of energy and new energies that, in the past, could not have been known to any particular degree, we have now found a tremendous significance.
In general, the points that can be focused on improving energy status can be divided into three categories:
A) Production: Production of energy from new sources, optimization of production methods and …
B) Transmission: Reducing transport losses to achieve optimal energy transfer through consumption
C) Consumption: consumer optimization, consumption patterns change, consumption savings, etc.
The funds provided by the Ministry of Energy of Iran with the consumption of 4,6727.4 million kWh in 2003 accounted for 4% of the country’s energy consumption and during this time the province of Isfahan, as the second most populated country in the country, amounted to 325.7 million Kilowatt-hours means about 7.2% of the total electricity consumption of the province, while lighthouse has a significant share of household income and also plays a significant role in industrial and public consumption. The majority of other consumption in peak hours (peak load) is related Bhrvshnayy. According to the statistics, the lighthouse has grown up by 24% per year, which is an increase in cities and an increase in the urban luminaries of cities and villages. Therefore, the importance of the community’s attention to saving in this sector and controlling power consumption in this area, considering that energy management in the lighting system is not limited to limiting energy or minimizing lighting, but also a method for the correct use in industries, residential buildings, and commercial And administrative and … is quite tangible.
As you know, LED stands for Light Emitting Diode. Maybe it’s incredible for you, but all types of diodes, even diodes rectifying your computer circuits, also emit light, but the question is, what are the differences between these LEDs on the market? It should be said that non-luminous diodes used in the electronics industry have a defect in one of the “light output frequencies”, “light transmission from the diode to the outside of the junction” or “the package used to prepare the diode”, and here it is. LED diodes are highlighted. In the production of LEDs, we try to use crystals and semiconductors that are transparent, have a light generating frequency and a suitable package.
The first light-emitting LED was made in 1962 by Nick Hollonak at the General Electric Institute. Of course, before that, many people were able to make LEDs with infrared light, but this was the first time a visible light was produced by LEDs. After him, his student was able to produce LEDs in dark yellow and orange colors. Of course, it should be noted that these LEDs had high prices of around $ 200, and were practically used only for specific uses, such as data transmission via fiber optics (though they were made by transparent LEDs that were later made).
In the following years, the companies Monsanto Company and HP (Hewlett Packard (HP)) began to produce red LEDs, using semiconductor gallium arsenide phosphide. These LEDs were mostly used in alphanumeric or calculator production. In 1970, LED semiconductor companies made Fairchilds at a price less than five cents. During this period, the LEDs had red, yellow, orange and eventually green colors, and as you know, they could not be white in color. So during this period, LEDs (usually 3 mm or 5 mm, lenses or lenses) played the role of a sign or marker or display role. Since white light was required to produce at least blue light, research on the production of light blue continued until the following years (late summer 1991) Japanese company Nichia Corporation with the efforts of Mr. Shoji Nakamura (Shuji Nakamura) was able to produce light-emitting light-emitting diode LEDs with half-galium nitride (GaN). Earlier, however, blue LEDs were produced by applying high-voltage to semiconductor carbonate silicon, but it was the first time that a blue LED was produced with this light intensity (100 times the size of the previous one). In the follow-up, researchers in 1995 were able to improve the clarity of the junction or conductor connector with the use of indium tin oxide with a new invention. So after that, the production of white LEDs was made possible.
We wonder how LEDs produce light? How is white light produced by LED? Here’s a simple answer to this question. As you have learned in physics and chemistry, chemical elements have energy layers called circuits, each of which contains a number of electrons. Each of these circuits has a different energy with other circuits. Walcteron needs to receive and lose this energy difference to go back to higher circuits. So, for example, if an electron wants to exceed one or more circuitry from its highest natural circuit, it must receive energy from the electric or thermal type, or light, or the like, and after receiving it, it can lose energy (which can be from Type of light) to lower circuits. Of course, this fall is certain to achieve a lasting state. In LEDs and fluorescent lamps, electrons go to higher levels by getting electrical energy, and then produce energy by losing their energy. This light is in the same colored monochrome LEDs, but in fluorescent lamps or white LEDs it can be ultraviolet or blue light.
White LEDs can produce white light in several ways:
The production of white light combines several LEDs with different colors.
The production of white light as a combination of light blue LEDs and the addition of yellow light (or yellow combination) using the fluorescence property
The production of white light is done by applying an ultraviolet light to a mixture of several fluorescence materials and obtaining a white light composition of these materials.
In practice, most of the last two are used in this process, because they cost less production, but the above methods are more efficient from top to bottom. Because fluorescence materials unwittingly lose some energy when reducing electron energy. It should be noted that the higher the number of colors used in white light production, the better the white light and the higher CRI.
But let’s also give a brief definition of the fluorescence phenomenon. This phenomenon, like the aforementioned phenomenon, is based on the promotion and reduction of the energy level of the electrons of matter. This time, the electron receives a higher level of light and goes down to the lower circuit with loss of energy in the form of light (this energy is less than the energy it receives).
LED Structure and function
The method of producing light is in the LED of crystalline radiation, which is produced by stimulating crystals, which are semiconductor elements (Electrolymans, Elecctroluminance). The LED building consists of two regions, P and N. In the N region, the crystal atoms have excess electrons and there is a lack of electrons in the P region. By applying a two-headed LED voltage, there is a PN region between these two regions, also called the LIGHT EMITTING DIODES. Due to the passage of electrical current, the electrons are combined with atoms that lack electrons to produce light.
The spectrum of light emitted by the LED is very narrow and there is no ultraviolet or infrared radiation, and light color depends on the crystal. To protect semiconductors, a protective layer is placed on the semiconductor. Since semiconductors are usually placed on a single page, light is only released in the upper half of the top. As a result, light guidance in the LED is easier than the type of lamp that normally emits in all directions. The
The LED’s transmitted current must be direct (DC). Also, the polarization of the voltage applied to the two LEDs is very important. If the polarity is reversed, the LED will not turn on, while if the range of applied voltage is high, it may damage the LED and destroy the crystal structure. The amount and color of light emitted from the LED is strongly dependent on the current flow, so the LED source is used to feed the LED.
LEDs are monochrome and emanate a pure color with a narrow frequency range. The color emitted from an LED is characterized by a wavelength and the unit is nm. The LED light color wavelength is a function of LED chip material. The wavelength range of 565 to 600 nm is a spectrum of light that is more sensitive to the human eye, so it understands the colors of yellow and amber more and better than other colors. The
LEDs are made of gallium crystals that contain one or more of the additional materials, such as phosphorus, to propagate a single color. Different technologies of the LED chip release the light in a specific range of visible light spectrum with different levels of intensity.
The intensity of light alone does not describe the total light output of the LED, but both the intensity of light and the pattern of spatial radiation (viewing angles) are important in the light output of the LED. If two LEDs have the same light intensity, the luminaires will have more light output at a higher viewing angle. The LED viewing angle is a type of LED chip and epoxy lens that releases light. High light intensity does not have the highest viewing angle. The output light of the LED chip is highly directional, so it requires high light and low viewing angles to have a high light output.
The subject we are considering is to examine the effect of replacing LED bulbs instead of the types of lamps used, which corresponds to the third major point in the cycle of energy consumption and consumers, which we deal with. Optimization of lighting systems is not only an improvement in energy efficiency, but also in terms of maintaining health and safety, because the inefficiencies of an inappropriate lighting system can eclipse eye, headache, visual impairment and crashes caused by dimming of light or glare and eyestrain. The efficiency of people.
First, let’s take a look at some of the key topics in the study:
The total light power of a light source (such as a lamp) is released in different degrees, the unit being a lumen. (One lumen is a light exsolve that emanates from a very dark object (black) to a surface of 0.5808 mm 2 in heat at 2042 degrees Celsius.)
Outside the part of the luminescence to its electrical power, it is called the Efficacy Efficiency, which is called “Lumens L / W”.
The intensity of light is due to the density of the fluctuations in a certain direction and in a certain direction in the shape expressed as the outside of the fluctuating part (F) to the spatial angle (ω), which is the candella unit. Obviously, if the light flux is distributed uniformly, the amount of light intensity will be:
The intensity of light in general is proportional to the amount of current that enters the LED. The higher the flow, the more intense the light, the design constraints must also be taken into account. LEDs are designed to work with 20 mAh but should be reduced due to the amount of heat generated. For example, 6-chip LEDs generate more heat than single-chip LEDs.
The ratio of the amount of light flux which is applied on the surface is called the intensity of light, which is a luxury unit.
Deluxe: A luxe is a refraction from an illumination fluctuation to Rick Lumens on a surface equal to one square meter.
Sun: 100,000 lux
Moon: 1 luxury
When, for the first time, a very small amount of light was observed during the flow of these species, no one thought that this seemingly dim light would change the future of light, but over time and inventing methods to increase the amount of light-emitting diodes by LEDs, many experts were attracted to them. It was announced in 2003 that by 2010 we will achieve a light output of 120 lumens per watt for the LED, while in mid-2004 O company The SRAM announced it had a yield of 108 lumens per watt, and in 2005 CREE announced it had a yield of 131 lumens per watt, and now LEDs with a yield of 80 lumens per watt are commercially produced, so we can see that the LED is dimming It has surprised even the most optimistic people about the future.
The nature of the color produced by the LED
LEDs can produce different colors and intensities, and this is easily possible by changing the structural and material constituents. As you can see, the light produced by the LEDs has a certain wavelength, which means that the production of the entire screen is pure. Now, one might wonder why LEDs are tricky. How can white light, which has the highest consumption in lighting, can be used? For this purpose, several methods are used, the most common ones are the use of red and green blue sparkles in order to make white color And the use of phosphor lens for blue LEDs.
What is a LED bulb?
LED bulbs are actually a set of one or more LEDs that are given in one set to get the light intensity and color needed to provide lighting or decorating. Unique LEDs have made LED lamps to quickly replace other lighting sources, and can be prominently featured with LED lights and LED signs that are now widely used in our country and replaced by old samples.
At present, the manufacturers of old lamps, most famous for them, OSRAM, have been investing extensively in the production of LED bulbs, and they are becoming more interesting when it comes to the fact that the most successful company in the production of low-energy bulbs is nowadays somewhat more suitable than LED bulbs. .) This company is OSRAM, and the company’s huge investment in LEDs is indicative of the fact that they are also on this issue. Any kind of future light source that can compete with LED bulbs is fully aware.
Advantages of LED bulbs
In fact, our main goal of this discussion is to answer the question: what is the use of LED bulbs in comparison with other lamps? What are some of the advantages of LED bulbs compared to other lamps?
At present, LED bulbs have an efficiency of between 20 and 40 lumens, while the amount of fuel used for inflammatory bulbs is 12 to 15 lumens, and 35-60 lumens per watt for dimmable bulbs, and for sodium bulbs, this value is 100 lumens Watts You see, apparently, LEDs do not have a particular advantage over low-energy or sodium vapor lamps, but the point that distinguishes LED lamps from other LEDs is that they do not produce light at all, and secondly, they include ultraviolet rays and It is not infrared, and this causes the intensity of their light in the space in question to be higher than the other, while at the same time as the center of attention Instrumentation activities, industries, companies and the office on this matter is shown in Fig.
In addition to the above, you can meet your needs with different LED bulbs. Normally, it’s not so much that, because of the many problems, the old bulbs can not be produced with the desired power and usually have certain standards. Normally, they also Such as LED lamps can not be adjusted.
Assume that the probability of a LED dropping off within 1 to 5000 times is 0.002. And if we consider an LED bulb with 500 LEDs and the time it takes to replace the LED, we would consider the LED 200, then the probability of lamp replacement for 1 to 5000 hours is equal to 0.002. It is possible to have 200 equal to zero each time. Thanks to the use of the LED bulb in standard conditions, it can be assured that it will not need to be replaced for many years. For this reason, now all LED bulbs are guaranteed by manufacturers outside the world for a period of five years, and these companies are committed that if there is a failure in every single pitfalls No cost to replace their products.
Long service life
Before the rise of the LEDs, the highest lifetime recorded for light sources was about 5,000 hours, and this is not comparable with the lowest life expectancy of LEDs. Let’s now examine the effect of the two features mentioned.
Usually, whenever you pass through the street, one or more light bulbs are off and replace them with agents every day, it takes a lot of time and money to spend, but with replacement of LED bulbs, instead of old bulbs, you can save a lot of these costs.
Absence of ultraviolet and infrared rays
The light that was produced by lighting sources has been accompanied by ultraviolet and infrared rays that are not visible to us in the field of vision, but they do not end here. Ultraviolet light, in addition to being used in lighting, is not harmful to humans, and scientists, based on the results The latest women’s research has prevented exposure to low-light bulbs and light bulbs because These bulbs produce a high amount of ultraviolet radiation, and it is thought that the effects of ultraviolet radiation on skin cancer have long been established.
Use with very low voltages
The voltage used for LED lamps can be very low, and it’s interesting that the LED lamps will light up with a small amount of their rated voltage and can be powered by the weakest and smallest batteries. Therefore, many lighting systems for industries, buildings, and even passages can be fed without direct connection to the entire network, which eliminates the problem of the peak and the valley of the network to some extent, and reduces the cost of the installation of high-speed, high-power drafts.
Low heat output
The heat generated by the LED is extremely low, due to its low energy consumption, which prevents the environment from burning and damaging the protective bodies and membranes (which usually melt after inflammatory lamps).
Ability to use both types of flow
LED bulbs typically use DC current, but they can easily be used to provide rectifiers with AC circuits to supply them with energy. Now LEDs are being produced that do not require current sensors for current and actuators to operate directly with the AC current. This LED capability makes it easy to use the sources of energy Solar powered DC power supply without need for inverter flow ( They are usually cost-effective and work with them and their maintenance is very straightforward) consumes energy directly.
This feature and low power consumption of LED lamps have made it possible for anyone without access to power grids to use any type of energy source to fully utilize LED lighting for lighting. The newest product, based on this LED feature, is provided by SHARP, which is a wall made of solar panels, which houses LEDs and stores energy throughout the day and illuminates the environment throughout the night.
In addition to the foregoing, one more unique feature of the other LED lamps is that if a LED bulb is mounted in a different type of lamp with a power equal to that of a DC power supply type, then after a light bulb starts to dim and shut down, the LED lamp will continue to decrease without dimming. Will give This is due to the CURRENT ORINTED LEDs, meaning they are a function of current and, unlike other light sources that are VOLTAGE ORIENTED, are not altered by changing the voltage of the light sources.
The ability to use -40 degrees and +85 degrees Celsius
It is safe to say that LED bulbs are usable at any point in every season, and have the ability to tolerate temperature changes that can not be found in any of the light sources, and you can readily display LEDs at temperatures of -50 ° to + 100 ° C. Typically, they are fierce and Unpredictable weather conditions Do not use any of the same old lamp bulbs and must have special measures to maintain and maintain them. But LED bulbs can easily be used anywhere without any special care.
Increased revenues in current slowdown conditions
It was previously said that it could be adjusted to a desired degree by diminishing the flow of light from the LEDs. It can be assumed that with the decrease of the current, as with other lamps, the output of the LEDs will be reduced, but the fact is that the flow decreases. Unlike other light sources, the light output of these lamps increases Finds more and more of their names.
If you use LED lamps because these lamps can be used with low and safe voltages, and in addition to producing heat with these types of lamps, the risk of electric shock, burns and fire can be greatly reduced, and many of the features that are required for old bulbs must be respected. We would have deleted.
Visible LEDs are 10x in size for inflammatory bulbs
The light produced by LED lamps is visible due to its very high brightness at very far distances, and the distance from which light can be heard is 10 times more than ordinary lamps, which is why many of the warning lights and warning signs are replaced by old samples.
Insects escape from the LED
In old bulbs, after the pollutions caused by insects gathering around these lamps, the most important factor was the reduction of the amount of light bulbs, which reduced the amount of light output to a high level. Thus, the energy consumption was higher than the light product, and from time to time it was necessary to light them, but, given the fact that they were non-volatile By LEDs, unlike other light sources, it does not only absorb insects, but also disperses insects from the environment and, as a result, Judd environment without nuisance insects, insect Nothing is Azalvdh Shdnhbab LED lamps.
The most important applications of LED lights
Brightness of passages
The use of other LEDs in the lighting section of the street. According to the figures in the energy bill of the year 82, there were about 4,672.4 kilowatt-hours in the lighting section of electric energy consumption passages, most of which were supplied with gum or sodium vapor lamps. By replacing the LED lamps, we can reduce this amount significantly. In brief, we study the lighting.
These lights should be waterproof and dust-free, generally used with gum and sodium lamps and have the following types:
– A short lawn light
– Medium Park Light
– Long street light
– Projection-specific lights
According to the characteristic tables of different lamps and catalogs of manufacturers. A number of sample lumens are in this case.
100W wattage bulb – 1380 lumens
Fluorescent lamp 40 W – 1950 Lumens
Mercury vapor lamp 250 W – 13500 Lumens
250W Wattage Lamp – 25,000 Lumens Lamp
Vapor pressure sodium low pressure 35 W – 4650 Lumens
A good lighting system for roads and streets should have the following characteristics:
Provide enough street lighting.
The street lighting is uniformly illuminated.
The system has the slightest eye irritation for the eye.
According to the above, it can be seen that the replacement of LED bulbs instead of bulbs that are currently being used for lighting purposes can prevent the loss of a large amount of energy from about 70% to 90% per year, and, in addition, reduce the cost of replacement and relocation The types of bulbs available and significant reductions in environmental pollution.